Many liquid and flowable solids can be successfully transported without being placed in any container. Some of the solid bulk cargoes are: Mineral ores, fertilizer, coal, limestone, cement, all kinds of grains, flour, chemicals, sugar. Liquid substances are products such as petroleum products, vegetable oils, rubber raw materials, liquid gases, chemicals, wine, fruit juices, milk, water and beer.
Crude oil and petroleum products occupy the largest place in bulk cargo transportation in terms of tonnage. Second comes grain transport. As the need for metal increases, grain transportation leaves its place to ore transportation.
The most important benefit of transportation in open piles instead of packaging is that it is economical. There is no need to use packaging material. In addition, the packaging business is eliminated. In bulk cargo transportation, as loading and unloading can be done more quickly, ships waste less time in ports and thus make more voyages.